Sunday, November 10, 2013

Prophecies Emmerick

Augustinian German nun (1774 – 1824) proclaimed Blessed on October 3, 2004 by Blessed John Paul II.
Born to poor but pious peasants. She was a very pious child who suffered with poor health, but who received visions and prophesies; they were so common that she thought all children could see the Child Jesus and the souls in Purgatory. She was able to diagnose illness and recommend cures, and to see a person's sins. She worked on her family's and other area farms, as a seamstress, and as a servant to a poor organist where she studied the instrument. Entered the Augustinian convent at Agnetenberg, Dulmen, Germany in 1802. Though her health was poor, her enthusiasm for the religious life was great, and she either energized her sisters, or put them off badly. Given to going into religious ecstasies in church, her cell, or while working. The convent was closed by government order in 1812, and Anne moved in with a poor widow. Her health failed, and instead of working as a servant, in 1813 she became a patient. Her visions and prophesies increased, and later that year she received the stigmata with wounds on her hands and feet, her head from the crown of thorns, and crosses on her chest, and the gift of inedia, living off nothing but Holy Communion for the rest of her life. She tried to hide the wounds, but word leaked out, and her vicar-general instituted a lengthy and detailed investigation; it was determined to be genuine. In 1818 she was relieved of the stigmata. In 1819 the government opened their own investigation. She was imprisoned, threatened, cajoled, and kept under 24-hour-a-day surveillance. The commission found no evidence either way, could not get Anne to change her story, eventually gave up, and failed to publish their findings. When they were forced to report, they declared the incident a fraud, but could not explain why they thought so, or why they had not published their findings. The poet Klemens Brentano visited Anne. She announced that she had seen him in a vision, and that he was to make a written record of the revelations that she received. He made notes of the messages, translating from Anne's Westphalian dialect to common German, getting her to confirm his version. In 1833 these were published as The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ according to the Meditations of Anne Catherine Emmerich. This was followed in 1852 by The Life of The Blessed Virgin Mary, and a three-volume Life of Our Lord from 1858 to 1880. While many such relevatory works deal with spirituality and ideas, these are very much straight-forward narratives and descriptions of events, yet have been the source of encouragement for many. Her Cause for Canonization formally introduced on 14 November 1892. Due to accusations about her vow of chastity, the investigation was halted on 30 November 1928. However, the accusations were proven false, and the investigation resumed on 18 May 1973. (1)
Taken from the Patron Saints at
March 22, 1820: “I saw very clearly the errors the aberrations an the countless sins of men. I saw the folly and the wickedness of their actions, against all truth and all reason. Priests were among them, and I gladly endured my suffering so that they may return to a better mind” (1)
April 12, 1820: “I had another vision of the great tribulation. It seems to me that a concession was demanded from the clergy which could not be granted. I saw many older priests, especially one, who wept bitterly. A few younger ones were also weeping. But others, and the lukewarm among them, readily did what was demanded. It was as if people were splitting into two camps…” (2)
May 13, 1820: “I SAW ALSO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TWO POPES. . . I SAW HOW BALEFUL WOULD BE THE CONSEQUENCES OF THIS FALSE CHURCH. I saw it increase in size; heretics of every kind came into the city (of Rome). The local clergy grew lukewarm, and I saw a great darkness” (3)
“Then the vision seemed to extend on every side. Whole Catholic communities were being oppressed, harassed, confined, and deprived of their freedom. I saw many churches closed down, great miseries everywhere, wars and bloodshed. A wild and ignorant mob took violent action. But it did not last long…” (4)
“Once more I saw that the Church of Peter was undermined by a plan evolved by the SECRET SECT, while storms were damaging it. But I saw also that help was coming when distress had reached its peak. I saw again the Blessed Virgin ascend on the Church and spread her mantle [over it]. I saw a Pope who was at once gentle, and very firm....  I saw a great renewal, and the Church rose high in the sky….” (5)
July, 1820: “I saw the Holy Father surrounded by traitors and in great distress about the Church. He had visions and apparitions in his hour of greatest need. I saw many good pious Bishops; but they were weak and wavering, their cowardice often got the upper hand…Then I saw  darkness spreading around and people no longer seeking the true Church.” (6)
July 12, 1820: “I had a vision of the holy Emperor Henry. I saw him at night kneeling alone at the foot of the main altar in a great and beautiful church…and I saw the Blessed Virgin coming down all alone. She laid on the altar a red cloth covered with white linen. She placed a book inlaid with precious stones. She lit the candles and the perpetual lamp…Then came the Saviour Himself clad in priestly vestments. He was carrying the chalice and the veil. Two angels were serving Him and two more were following…His chasuble was a full and heavy mantle in which red and white could be seen in transparency, and gleaming with jewels…Although there was no altar bell, the cruets were there. The wine was as red as blood, and there was also some water. The Mass was short. The Gospel of St. John was not read at the end. When the Mass had ended, Mary came up to Henry, (The Emperor) and she extended her right hand towards him, saying that it was in recognition of his purity. Then she urged him not to falter. Thereupon I saw an angel, and he touched the sinew of his hip, like Jacob. Henry was in great pain; and from that day on he walked with a limp…” (7)
August to October, 1820: “I see more martyrs, not now but in the future…I saw the secret sect relentlessly undermining the great Church. Near them I saw a horrible beast coming up from the sea... All over the world, good and devout people especially the clergy were harassed oppressed and put into prison. I had the feeling that they would become martyrs one day.” (8)
“When the Church had been for the most part destroyed [by the secret sect], and when only the sanctuary and altar were still standing, I saw the wreckers enter the Church with the Beast. There they met a Woman of noble carriage who seemed to be with child because she walked slowly. At this sight, the enemies were terrorized, and the Beast could not take but another step forward. It projected its neck towards the Woman as if to devour her, but the Woman turned about and bowed down [towards the altar], her head touching the ground. Thereupon, I saw the Beast taking to flight towards the sea again, and the enemies were fleeing in the greatest confusion.... Then, I saw in the great distance great legion approaching. In the foreground I saw a man on a white horse. Prisoners were set free and joined them. All enemies were pursued. Then, I saw that the Church was being promptly rebuilt, and she was more magnificent than ever before….” (9)
August 10, 1820: “I see the Holy Father in great anguish. He lives in a palace other than before and he admits only a limited number of friends near him. I fear that the Holy Father will suffer many more trials before he dies. I see that the false Church of darkness is making progress and I see the dreadful influence it has on the people. The Holy Father and the Church are verily in so great a distress that one must implore God night and day…” (10)
“I have been told to pray much for the Church and the Pope…The people must pray earnestly for the extirpation (Rooting out, destruction) of the dark church.” (11)
“Last night I was taken to Rome where the Holy Father immersed in his sorrow, is still hiding to elude dangerous demands (made upon him). He is still very weak, and exhausted by sorrows, cares and prayers. He can now trust but few people. That is mainly why he is hiding. But he still has with him an aged priest who has much simplicity and godliness. He is his friend and because of his simplicity they did not think it would be worth removing him. But this man receives many graces from God. He sees and notices a great many things which he faithfully reports to the Holy Father. It was required of me to inform him while he was praying, of the traitors and evil doers who were to be found among the high ranking servants living close to him, so that he might be made aware of it” (12)
August 25, 1820: “I do not know in what manner I was taken to Rome last night, but I found myself near the Church of St Mary Major, and I saw many poor people who were greatly distressed and worried because the Pope was to be seen nowhere, and also on account of the restlessness and the alarming rumours in the city. These people did not seem to expect the Church doors to open; they only wanted to pray outside. An inner urging had left them there individually. But I was in the Church, and I opened the doors. They came in, surprised and frightened because the doors had opened. It seems to me that I was behind the door, and they could not see me. There was no office on in the Church. But the sanctuary lamps were lit. The people prayed quite peacefully…” (13)
“Then I saw an apparition of the Mother of God, and she said that the tribulation would be very great. She added that people must pray fervently with outstretched arms, be it only long enough to say three Our Fathers. This was the way her Son prayed for them on the Cross. They must rise at twelve at night, and pray in this manner; and they must keep coming to the Church. They must pray above all for the Church of Darkness to leave Rome...“ (14)
“She (The Holy Mother) said a great many others things that it pains me to relate: she said that if only one priest could offer the bloodless sacrifice as worthily and with the same disposition as the Apostles, he could avert all the disasters (that are to come). To my knowledge the people in the Church did not see the apparition, but they must have been stirred by something supernatural, because as soon as the Holy Virgin had said that they must pray God with outstretched arms , they all raised their arms. These were all good and devout people, and they did not know where help and guidance should be sought. There were no traitors and enemies among them, yet they were afraid of one another. Once can judge thereby what the situation was like. “ (15)
September 10, 1820: “I saw the Church of St Peter: it has been destroyed but for the Sanctuary and the main altar. St Michael came down into the Church, clad in his suit of armor, and he paused, threatening with his sword and number of unworthy pastors who wanted to enter. That part of the Church which had been destroyed was promptly fenced in with light timber so that the Divine office might be celebrated as it should. Then, from all over the world came priests and laymen and they rebuilt the stone walls, since the wreckers had been unable to move the heavy foundation stones. And then I saw that the Church was being promptly rebuilt and She was more magnificent than ever before…” (16)
September 12, 1820: “I saw a strange church being built against every rule…No angels were supervising the building operations. In that church, nothing came from high above…There was only division and chaos. It is probably a church of human creation, following the latest fashion, as well as the new heterodox Church of Rome, which seems of the same kind…” (17)
“I saw again the strange big church that was being built there (in Rome). There was nothing holy in it. I saw this just as I saw a movement led by Ecclesiastics to which contributed angels, saints and other Christians. But there (in the strange big church) all the work was being done mechanically (i.e., according to set rules and formulae). Everything was being done, according to human reason. I saw all sorts of people, things, doctrines, and opinions. There was something proud, presumptuous, and violent about it, and they seemed to be very successful. I did not see a single Angel nor a single saint helping in the work. But far away in the background, I saw the seat of a cruel people armed with spears, and I saw a laughing figure which said: 'Do build it as solid as you can; we will put it to the ground’.” (18)
“I saw that many of the instruments in the new Church, such as spears and darts, were meant to be used against the living Church. Everyone dragged in something different: clubs, rods, pumps, cadgels, puppets, mirrors, trumpets, horns bellows - all sorts of things. In the cave below (the sacristy) some people kneaded bread, but nothing came of it; it would not rise. The men in the little mantles brought wood to the steps of the pulpit to make a fire. They puffed and blew and laboured hard, but the fire would not burn. All they produced was smoke and fumes. Then they broke a hole in the roof and ran up a pipe, but the smoke would not rise, and the whole place became black and suffocating. Some blew the horns so violently that the tears streamed from their eyes. All in this church belonged to the earth, returned to the earth. All was dead, the work of human skill, a church of the latest style, a church of man's invention like the new heterodox church in Rome” (19)
September 27, 1820: “I saw deplorable things: they were gambling, drinking, and talking in church; they were also courting women. All sorts of abominations were perpetrated there. Priests allowed everything and said Mass with much irreverence. I saw that few of them were still godly, and only a few had sound views on things.  I also saw Jews standing under the porch of the Church. All these things caused me much distress.” (20)
October 1, 1820: “The Church is in great danger. We must pray so that the Pope may not leave Rome; countless evils would result if he did. They are now demanding something from him. The Protestant doctrine and that of the schismatic Greeks are to spread everywhere. I now see that in this place (Rome) the (Catholic) Church is being so cleverly undermined, that there hardly remain a hundred or so priests who have not been deceived. They all work for destruction, even the clergy. A great devastation is now near at hand.” (21)
“In those days Faith will fall very low and it will be preserved in some places only” (22)
“The Little Black Man in Rome, whom I see so often, has many working for him without their clearly knowing for what end. He has his agents in the New Black Church also. If the Pope leaves Rome, the enemies of the Church will get the upper hand. I see the Little Black Man in his own country committing many thefts and falsifying things generally. Religion is there so skillfully undermined and stifled that there are scarcely 100 faithful priests. I cannot say how it is, but I see fog and darkness increasing ... All must be rebuilt soon; for everyone, even ecclesiastics, are laboring to destroy (and) ruin is at hand. The 2 enemies of the Church who have lost their accomplice are firmly resolved to destroy the pious and learned men that stand in their way…” (23 )
October 4, 1820: “When I saw the Church of St Peter in ruins and the manner in which so many of the clergy were themselves busy at this work of destruction –none of them wishing to do it openly in front of the others  -I was in such distress that I cried out to Jesus with all my might, imploring His mercy. Then I saw before me the Heavenly Spouse, and He spoke to me for a long time…He said, among other things, that this translation of the Church from one place to another meant that she would seem to be in complete decline. But she would rise again; even if there remained but one Catholic, the Church would conquer again because she does not rest on human counsels and intelligence. It was shown to me that there were almost no Christians left in the old acceptation of the word” (24)
October 7, 1820: “As I was going through Rome with St. Francoise and the other saint, we saw a great palace engulfed in flames from top to bottom. I was very much afraid that the occupants would be burned to death because no one came forward to put out the fire. As we came nearer, however, the fire abated and we saw the blackened building. We went through a number of magnificent rooms (untouched by the fire), and we finally reached the Pope. He was sitting in the dark and slept in a large arm-chair. He was very ill and weak; he could no longer walk. The ecclesiastics in the inner circle looked insincere and lacking in zeal; I did not like them. I told the Pope of the bishops who are to be appointed soon. I told him also that he must not leave Rome. If he did so, it would be chaos. He thought that the evil was inevitable and that he should leave in order to save many things beside himself. He was very much inclined to leave Rome, and he was insistently urged to do so. The Pope is still attached to the things of this earth in many ways…” (25)
“The Church is completely isolated and as if completely deserted. It seems that everyone is running away. Everywhere I see great misery, hatred, treason, rancor, confusion and utter blindness. O city! O city! What is threatening thee? The storm is coming, do be watchful!…” (26)
June 1, 1821: “Among the strangest things that I saw, were long processions of bishops. Their thoughts and utterances were made known to me through images issuing from their mouths. Their faults towards religion were shown by external deformities. A few had only a body, with a dark cloud of fog instead of a head. Others had only a head, their bodies and hearts were like thick vapors. Some were lame; others were paralytics; others were asleep or staggering. I saw what I believe to be nearly all the bishops of the world, but only a small number were perfectly sound. I also saw the Holy Father - God-fearing and prayerful. Nothing left to be desired in his appearance, but he was weakened by old age and by much suffering. His head was lolling from side to side, and it dropped onto his chest as if he was falling asleep He often fainted and seemed to be dying. But when he was praying, he was often comforted by apparitions from Heaven. Then, his head was erect, but as soon as it dropped again onto his chest, I saw a number of people looking quickly right and left, that is, in the direction of the world…” (27)
“Then I saw that everything pertaining to Protestantism was gradually gaining the upper hand, and the Catholic religion fell into complete decadence. Most priests were lured by the glittering but false knowledge of young school-teachers, and they all contributed to the work of destruction. In those days, Faith will fall very low, and it will be preserved in some places only, in a few cottages and in a few families which God has protected from disasters and wars…” (28)
(No precise date), 1820-1821: “I also saw the various regions of the earth. My Guide (Jesus) named Europe and pointing to a small and sandy region, He uttered these words: ‘Here is Prussia (East Germany), the enemy.’ Then He showed me another place, to the north, and He said: ‘This is Moskva, the land of Moscow, bringing many evils’.” (29)
(No precise date), 1820-1821: “I see many excommunicated ecclesiastics who do not seem to be concerned about it, nor even aware of it. Yet, they are (ipso factor) excommunicated whenever they cooperated to [sic] enterprises, enter into associations, and embrace opinions on which an anathema has been cast. It can be seen thereby that God ratifies the decrees, orders, and interdictions issued by the Head of the Church, and that He keeps them in force even though men show no concern for them, reject them, or laugh them to scorn.” (30)
January 27, 1822: I saw a new Pope who will be very strict. He will estrange from him the cold and lukewarm bishops. He is not a Roman, but he is Italian. He comes from a place which is not very far from Rome, and I think he comes from a devout family of royal blood. But there must still be for a while much fighting and unrest” (31)
October 22, 1822: “Very bad times will come when non-Catholics will lead many people astray. A great confusion will result. I saw the battle also. The enemies were far more numerous, but the small army of the faithful cut down whole rows of enemy soldiers. During the battle, the Blessed Virgin stood on a hill, wearing a suit armour. It was a terrible war. At the end, only a few fighters for the just cause survived, but the victory was theirs…” (32 )
April 22, 1823: “I saw that many pastors allowed themselves to be taken up with ideas that were dangerous to the Church. They were building a great, strange, and extravagant Church. Everyone was to be admitted in it in order to be united and have equal rights: Evangelicals, Catholics sects of every description. Such was to be the new Church…But God had other designs…” (33)
“I see that when the Second Coming of Christ approaches, a bad priest will do much harm to the Church. When the time of the reign of Antichrist is near, a false religion will appear which will be opposed to the unity of God and His Church. This will cause the greatest schism the world has ever known. The nearer the time of the end, the more the darkness of Satan will spread on earth, the greater will be the number of the children of corruption, and the number of the just will correspondingly diminish…” (34)
On Paris: “Frightful misery, corruption and abomination reigned in the city. It appeared to be in sinking condition, and that no stone would be left upon another” (35) 
On the Ecumenical Church: “They built a large, singular, extravagant church which was to embrace all creeds with equal rights: Evangelicals, Catholics, and all denominations, a true communion of the unholy with one shepherd and one flock. There was to be a Pope, a salaried Pope, without possessions. All was made ready, many things finished; but, in place of an altar, were only abomination and desolation. Such was the new church to be, and it was for it that he had set fire to the old one; but God designed otherwise….” (36)
On Schismatic Christians:  “I saw several churches, or rather meeting-houses surmounted by weather-cocks, the congregations, disunited from the Church, running here and there like beggars hurrying to places where bread is distributed, having no connection with either the Church Triumphant or the Church Suffering. They were not in a regularly founded, living Church, one with the Church Militant, Suffering, and Triumphant, nor did they receive the Body of the Lord, but only bread. They who were in error through no fault of their own and who piously and ardently longed for the Body of Jesus Christ, were spiritually consoled, but not by their communion. They who habitually communicated without this ardent love received nothing but a child of the Church receives an immense increase of strength…” (37)
On Rome: “I came to the Church of Peter and Paul (Rome) and saw a dark world of distress, confusion, and corruption, through which shone countless graces from thousands of saints who there repose…” (38)
On Portugal: “This country was pretty tranquil compared  with that of Saint Ignatius, which I now entered and found in frightful misery. Darkness lay over the whole land where reposes the treasure of the saint's graces and merits. I was at the central point" (Note: I guess she means Madrid) "and I recognized the place where long before I had had a vision of people cast into a fiery furnace around which their enemies were gathered, but they who had kindled the flames were themselves consumed by them. I saw unheard-of abominations spreading over the land, and my guide said to me: this is Babel. I saw throughout the whole country a chain of secret societies with influences at work like those of Babel. They were connected with the building of a tower by a web fine as that of a spider, which extended up through all ages. Its highest blossom was the diabolical woman Semiramis. I saw all going to ruin, sacred things destroyed, impiety and heresy flowing in. A civil war was brewing and a destructive internal crisis was at hand.” (39)
More on the Ecumenical Church: “I saw the fatal consequences of this counterfeit church: I. saw it increase; I saw heretics of all kinds flocking to the city. I saw the ever-increasing tepidity of the clergy, the circle of darkness ever widening…” (40)
On the restoration: “Again I saw in the midst of these disasters the twelve new Apostles labouring in different countries, unknown to one another, each receiving streams of living water from on high They all did the same work. They know not whence they received their tasks; but as soon as one was finished, another was ready for them…” (41)
On the Pope’s confidant: “Ah! a pious, parish-priest has just died in Rome of old age! I received the general absolution with him! His soul went straight to purgatory, but he will very soon be released. We must pray for him. He was greatly attached to the Pope during whose captivity he did much good in secret. The Pope himself has not long to live... That good old priest was one of the twelve unknown Apostles whom I always see supporting the Church and of whom I have often spoke. He is the second that has died. There are now only ten; but I see others growing up. He was a friend and counsellor of the Holy Father, but he would never give up his parish for a higher position.” (42)
On Germany: “I saw in Germany among world-wise ecclesiastics, and enlightened Protestants, plans formed for the blending of religious creeds, the suppression of Papal authority, the appointment of more superiors, the diminishing of expenses and number of ecclesiastics, etc., which projects found abettors in many of the Roman prelates.” (43)
“They want to take from the shepherd his own pasture grounds! They want to fill his place with one who will hand all over to the enemy! Then she shook her hand indignantly, crying out: ‘O ye  German cheats! Wait awhile! you will not succeed! The Shepherd stands upon a rock! O ye priests!…ye sleep, and the sheepfold is everywhere on  fire! You do nothing! O how you will bewail this some day!…” (44)
On the End things: “All around me I see a terrible, bloody war, which approaches from Midnight, the North, and Evening, the East. I heard that Lucifer -- if I am not wrong, would be let go for a time, fifty or sixty years before the year 2000. I saw the earth covered with darkness, everything was withered and barren, everything made the impression of pining away. It seems that even the waters of the springs were exhausted. I saw how the labour of darkness multiplied among the people, I saw countries and people in the greatest of distress, and fighting each other violently. In the centre of the battleground was a giant abyss, into which the warring factions seemed to fall…” (45)
 “I wish the time were here when the Pope dressed in red will reign. I see the Apostles, not those of the past, but the apostles of the last times, and it seems to me, the Pope is among them…” (46)
“I was likewise told if I remember right that he (Satan) will be unchained for a time fifty or sixty years before the year of Christ 2000…” (47)
 “A pale faced man floated slowly over the earth and, loosening the cloths which wrapped around his sword, he threw them on sleeping cities, which were bound by them. This figure also dropped pestilence on Russia, Italy, and Spain. A red noose lay around Berlin, and from there it came to Westphalia. Now the man's sword was naked, bands red as blood hung from its hilt and blood trickled from it on Westphalia...” (48)
“The Jews shall return to Palestine, and become Christians toward the end of the world.” (49)

1. Yves Dupont, Catholic Prophecy (Tan Books and Publishers 1970) p 70. 2. ibid. 3. ibid p 60. 4. ibid. 5. ibid. 6. Very Rev Carl E. Schmoeger, CSSR The Life of Anne Catherine Emmerich Volume 1 and 2, 1976 Edition (Tan Books and Publishers) p 298. 7. Yves Dupont, Catholic Prophecy (Tan Books and Publishers 1970) p 62. 8. ibid. 9. ibid p62-63. 10. ibid p 63. 11. Very Rev Carl E. Schmoeger, CSSR The Life of Anne Catherine Emmerich Volume 1 and 2, 1976 Edition (Tan Books and Publishers) p 292-293. 12. Yves Dupont, Catholic Prophecy (Tan Books and Publishers 1970) p 64. 13. ibid. 14. ibid. 15. ibid p65. 16. ibid. 17. ibid p 61. 18. ibid. 19. Carl E. Schmoeger, CSSR The Life of Anne Catherine Emmerich Volume 1 and 2, 1976 Edition (Tan Books and Publishers) p282-283. 20. Yves Dupont, Catholic Prophecy (Tan Books and Publishers 1970) p 66. 21. ibid. 22. ibid. 23. Very Rev Carl E. Schmoeger, CSSR The Life of Anne Catherine Emmerich Volume 1 and 2, 1976 Edition (Tan Books and Publishers) p ??. 24.Yves Dupont, Catholic Prophecy (Tan Books and Publishers 1970) p 67. 25. ibid. 26. ibid p 68. 27. ibid. 28. ibid p 68-69. 29. ibid p 68. 30. ibid p 69. 31. ibid p 70. 32. ibid p 71. 33. ibid p 71. 34. Reverend Carl Schmoger CSSR, Volume 1 and 2, 1976 Edition (Tan Books and Publishers) as quoted by Ted and Maureen Flynn Thunder of Justice: The Miracle, The Warning, The Chastisement, The Era of Peace Maxkol Communications 1993 p253. 35. Reverend A. O’Brien. From the Visions of the Venerable Anne Catherine Emmerich  (Topic Newspapers LTD, Mullingar). 36. Very Rev Carl E. Schmoeger, CSSR The Life of Anne Catherine Emmerich Volume 1 and 2, 1976 Edition (Tan Books and Publishers) p . 37. ibid p 85. 38. ibid p 130. 39. ibid p 131-231. 40. ibid p 281. 41. ibid p 329-330. 42. ibid p 343-344. 43. ibid p 346. 44. ibid p 349-350. 45. Robert A. Nelson. Prophecy: A History of the Future Internet Version ( 46. Rev R. Gerald. Culleton The Prophets and Our Times  (Tan Books and Publishers 1941) p 207. 47. ibid . 48. ibid. 49. ibid.

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